Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

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Income Taxes
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2017
Income Taxes [Abstract]  
Income Taxes
7.
Income Taxes

Our income tax expense was $9.9 million and $10.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, respectively, which is primarily attributable to our pre-tax book income multiplied by an estimated annual effective tax rate and discrete tax benefits relating to exercises of options.  Our income tax expense was $9.8 million and $17.9 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively, which is primarily attributable to our pre-tax income including our current tax expense consisting of federal alternative minimum tax and various state taxes and our deferred income tax expense consisting of temporary tax items including stock compensation and differences in the book and tax lives of amortizable intangibles. As described  in Note 1- “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” we adopted the new accounting guidance that changes the reporting for certain aspects of share-based payments. One aspect of the guidance requires that the income tax effects of share-based awards be recognized in the income tax provision in the consolidated statements of income when the awards vest or are settled. Under the previous guidance, excess tax benefits and deficiencies were recognized in additional paid-in capital in the consolidated balance sheets when the awards vested or were settled.  For the three and six months ended June 30, 2017, the amount of excess tax benefits recognized in the income tax provision was approximately $5.7 million and $18.3 million, respectively.  For the three and six months ended June 30, 2016, respectively, the amount of excess tax benefits recognized in additional paid-in capital was not material.

Our effective income tax rate differs from the statutory income tax rate primarily as a result of permanent tax adjustments for tax benefits from stock options exercised and research and development tax credits, as well as permanent tax adjustments for nondeductible items, such as stock-based compensation and state taxes. We evaluated the appropriateness of our deferred tax assets and related valuation allowance in accordance with Income Taxes based on all available positive and negative evidence. As of June 30, 2017 and December 31, 2016, we do not have any valuation allowance against our deferred tax assets.